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Arthrosetherapie: Glucosamin und Chondroitin Sulfat konnten  die arthrosebedingten  Knieschmerzen nicht überzeugend lindern

 

Für die Behandlung von Arthritis-Beschwerden wird derzeit oft die Einnahme von Glucosamin und Chondroitin-Sulfat als Mono- oder Kombinationstherapie empfohlen. Die bisher vorliegenden Studien erbrachten widersprüchliche und wenig überzeugende Resultate. Daher ist noch längst nicht bewiesen, daß diese Therapie überhaupt zuverlässig wirkt. Die Nebenwirkungen sind allerdings meist harmlos, so daß Patienten individuelle entscheiden müssen, ob sich die Geldausgabe ihrer meinung nach lohnt.

In der hier vorliegenden Studie wurden 1.583 Patienten behandelt, die über chronische arthrotisch bedingte Knieschmerzen klagten.  Die Probanden erhielten 24 Wochen lang täglich 1.500 mg Glucosamine, 1.200 mg Chondroitin sulfate , beides oder 200 mg des COX-2-Hemmers Celecoxib, bzw. ein unwirksames Scheinmedikament (Placebo). Bei der Untersuchung ging es um die Frage, ob die Therapien in der Lage waren, die Schmerzen im Untersuchungszeitraum um mindestens 20% zu vermindern.

Es zeigte sich bei Betrachtung aller Probanden, daß Glucosamin und Chondroitin Sulfat in Bezug auf die geklagten Arthrose-Schmerzen nicht besser wirkten als das eingesetzte unwirksame Scheinmedikament. Selbst durch die Einnahme des COX-2-Hemmers wurden die Knieschmerzen im Vergleich zum Placebo nur um 10% besser gemildert. 

In der Unter-Gruppe der Patienten mit mittelgradigen bis starken Knieschmerzen lag die Wirkrate bei dem unwirksamen Scheinmedikament bei 54.3 Prozent und bei der kombinierten Einnahme von Glucosamin und Chondroitin Sulfat lediglich bei 79.2%. Da es nur um eine Schmerzlinderung von 20% ging, ist dieser Unterschied zwar vorhanden aber so niedrig, daß sich der Einsatz der teuren Nahrungsergänzungsmittel kaum lohnt.

 

 

 

Glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and the two in combination for painful knee osteoarthritis.

Clegg DO, Reda DJ, Harris CL, Klein MA, O'Dell JR, Hooper MM, Bradley JD, Bingham CO 3rd, Weisman MH, Jackson CG, Lane NE, Cush JJ, Moreland LW, Schumacher HR Jr, Oddis CV, Wolfe F, Molitor JA, Yocum DE, Schnitzer TJ, Furst DE, Sawitzke AD, Shi H, Brandt KD, Moskowitz RW, Williams HJ.

Division of Rheumatology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA. gait.study@hsc.utah.edu

BACKGROUND: Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate are used to treat osteoarthritis. The multicenter, double-blind, placebo- and celecoxib-controlled Glucosamine/chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT) evaluated their efficacy and safety as a treatment for knee pain from osteoarthritis.

METHODS: We randomly assigned 1583 patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis to receive 1500 mg of glucosamine daily, 1200 mg of chondroitin sulfate daily, both glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, 200 mg of celecoxib daily, or placebo for 24 weeks.

Up to 4000 mg of acetaminophen daily was allowed as rescue analgesia. Assignment was stratified according to the severity of knee pain (mild [N=1229] vs. moderate to severe [N=354]). The primary outcome measure was a 20 percent decrease in knee pain from baseline to week 24.

RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 59 years, and 64 percent were women. Overall, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate were not significantly better than placebo in reducing knee pain by 20 percent.

As compared with the rate of response to placebo (60.1 percent), the rate of response to glucosamine was 3.9 percentage points higher (P=0.30), the rate of response to chondroitin sulfate was 5.3 percentage points higher (P=0.17), and the rate of response to combined treatment was 6.5 percentage points higher (P=0.09). The rate of response in the celecoxib control group was 10.0 percentage points higher than that in the placebo control group (P=0.008).

For patients with moderate-to-severe pain at baseline, the rate of response was significantly higher with combined therapy than with placebo (79.2 percent vs. 54.3 percent, P=0.002). Adverse events were mild, infrequent, and evenly distributed among the groups.

CONCLUSIONS: Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate alone or in combination did not reduce pain effectively in the overall group of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Exploratory analyses suggest that the combination of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate may be effective in the subgroup of patients with moderate-to-severe knee pain.

 

(ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00032890.). Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.
 

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Weitere Informationen:


 

Dietary Outcomes in Osteoarthritis Disease Management

Carol J. Henderson, PhD, RD
Department of Nutrition
Georgia State University 
Atlanta, GA

Glucosamine Sulfate and Chondroitin Sulfate

Glucosamine is an aminomonosaccharide, a component of almost all human tissues, including cartilage. It is the principle component of O- and N-linked glycosaminoglycans, which form the matrix of all connective tissues. Glucosamine sulfate has a relatively low molecular weight and is the sulfate salt of the natural aminomonosaccharide, glucosamine. Glucosamine is commercially available in pharmacies, health food stores, and retail stores and is sold via the Internet. It is most commonly available as the sulfate, HCl, N-acetyl or chlorhydrate salt isomers, which are water-soluble (10). The sulfate and HCl forms differ in their purity, sodium content, bioactive glucosamine, and equivalent dosages. Unlike glucosamine sulfate and HCl forms that are most commonly used in clinical trials, glucosamine does not have active intestinal transport. In some preparations, glucosamine is combined with chondroitin sulfate.

Glucosamine sulfate provides pain relief and improved function in knee OA (11). In a recent 3-year, randomized, placebo-controlled, prospective study by Bruyere et al, 212 patients with knee OA were evaluated to determine the effect of glucosamine and chondroitin on symptom and structure modification in knee OA (12). In patients who had mild OA and were in the highest quartile of baseline mean joint space narrowing, glucosamine was associated with a trend (p=0.10) towards a significant reduction in joint space narrowing (13). The authors reported indistinguishable symptomatic efficacies for both compounds as indicated by two 3-year, double-blinded, controlled studies (14,15).

Chondroitin sulfate occurs naturally in human cartilage, bone, cornea, skin and the arterial wall. Preparations of chondroitin sulfate are derived form bovine and calf cartilage. Careful selection of cattle to avoid herds contaminated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy must be considered. Chondroitin sulfate is a larger and more poorly absorbed; <10% intestinal absorption compared to 90% for glucosamine sulfate (10).

Several small, short-term, 3- to 12-month, randomized placebo controlled clinical trials to evaluate the effects on chondroitin sulfate/placebo or NSAID have demonstrated modest reductions in knee OA pain and improved function (16). Sustained effects have been reported up to 3 months after discontinuation of chondroitin sulfate (17).

Few studies have attempted to evaluate the potential chondroprotective effects of chondroitin sulfate by observing the progression of radiographic changes of OA (18,19). Using a computerized technique to evaluate joint space narrowing, patients were treated with 800 mg chondroitin sulfate/day or with placebo (18). After 1 year, joint space narrowing had decreased significantly in placebo-treated patients but had not changed from the baseline value in the chondroitin sulfate treatment group. In a 3-year trial, hand radiographs of 119 patients with OA were evaluated, of which 34 received chondroitin sulfate 400 mg/day and 85 patients received placebo (19). A significant decrease in the number of patients with new erosive OA was observed in the chondroitin sulfate group compared to the placebo group.

Reports of small, randomized controlled trials have examined the combination of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate for knee OA pain and low back pain have been reported. It is important to note that these studies treatments were not consistent and included both oral and intravenous glucosamine, glucosamine HCl, and manganese ascorbate. In general studies using chondroitin sulfate combined with other agents (eg, glucosamine sulfate), improved symptoms of OA compared to placebo (9).

 

Precautions and Possible Side Effects:
There are no known contraindications to glucosamine supplementation. Glucosamine appears safe and has few short-term side effects. Pregnant women, children, and very elderly people should avoid glucosamine since no studies among these specific populations exist. Patients taking blood-thinners should be extremely careful if they take glucosamine combined with chondroitin. Chondroitin is chemically similar to blood-thinning drugs such as heparin, warfarin, and even aspirin, and could cause excessive bleeding. Possible side effects of glucosamine include nausea, diarrhea, heartburn, drowsiness, skin rash, and headache. There has been an unsubstantiated concern that glucosamine derived from the shellfish exoskeletons may cause reactions in people allergic to shellfish. One case study reports the exacerbation of an asthma attack associated with the use of a glucosamine-chondroitin supplement prescribed for OA pain (20). A recent 3-month, randomized, placebo-controlled trial did not demonstrate elevated blood glucose levels associated with glucosamine use (21). Insufficient data exist regarding possible interactions between glucosamine and other dietary supplements.

 

Recommendations:
Glucosamine sulfate 1500 mg daily in divided doses for patient with symptomatic OA may be considered. Response is slower than NSAIDs. Discontinuation is recommended if there is no documented response after 3 months.

Chondroitin sulfate may be considered in the treatment of pain from OA and may be given in the amount of 1,200 mg/day or 400 mg tid. Efficacy of a single daily dose of 1,200 mg/day does not seem to differ from that of 400 mg given tid.




Dietary Outcomes in Osteoarthritis Disease Management

Carol J. Henderson, PhD, RD
Department of Nutrition
Georgia State University 
Atlanta, GA

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